SLAMM-View is a web browser-based application that provides tools for improved understanding of results from research projects that employ the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM). Version 2.0 of SLAMM-View was designed for a user-friendly, workflow-based approach to assess impacts of sea-level rise (SLR) on coastal areas with both visualization and analysis functionality. SLAMM-View provides simultaneous comparison between both current and future conditions out to the year 2100, and among different SLR scenarios (e.g., 0.4 meter vs. 1 meter), using interactive maps and tabular reporting capabilities. To date, SLAMM-View provides access to SLAMM simulation results for the entire coastlines of 5 states, and partial coverage of an additional 15 states and 2 U.S territories. SLAMM-View can be used in either Quick Mode or Interactive Mode.
Efficiently and effectively presenting the large volume of geospatially-referenced, gridded data output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) for each sea-level rise (SLR) scenario time-series is a challenge. For most studies, an output file is produced for each of 5 different dates in a time-series (i.e., Base Year, 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100) for each different scenario of sea level rise (e.g., IPCC A1B Mean, IPCC A1B Max, and 1m). When examining these outputs, interested parties logically most often want to view two types of combinations of these 15 different data layers: "same scenario, different date", and "same date, different scenario", which in sum result in 45 unique pairs of simulation output.
While summary tables provide the means to present SLAMM output in a condensed form, the spatial context of where the changes occur is lost. Maps of the entire study region displayed at a resolution sufficient to examine local impacts are large and unwieldy to place side by side for comparison, especially in digital format. Making the raw, gridded output data publicly-available is not a viable solution for the researcher or layperson lacking GIS skills, GIS software, or persons with those resources but lacking time.
Image Matters LLC developed the initial version of the "SLAMM-View" web-mapping application to solve this geospatial accessibility problem. SLAMM-View 1.0 portrayed pairs of simulation results in conjunction with other thematic layers which provide context. SLAMM-View 1.0 allowed the user to choose one of the 45 output pairs in a dual "live" map display: either from the same year (e.g., 2100) but from different scenarios (e.g., a 0.5 m SLR and a 1 m SLR), or from different years within the same scenario (e.g., base year 2000 and year 2100, both under a 1 m SLR). The zooming and panning tools allowed the user to focus the inquiry on their particular locality of interest, be it a large region encompassing the entire Georgia coastline, or a small barrier island. One unique aspect of this web-mapping tool, vital to facilitating a comparison between the selected pair of simulation results, was that the dual maps are geographically-linked: zooming or panning in one map caused an identical action in the other map.
SLAMM-View 2.0 was designed to build upon the best innovations of the initial version, and to improve user-friendliness by employing a guided workflow approach, to direct the user through the necessary choices to arrive at the desired visualization and analysis result. In addition to the guided workflow, two other primary features were added: 1) a Multi-Map view that provides the simultaneous comparison of SLAMM simulation results through time and between output from different scenarios; and 2) Analysis tools that provide a summary (and printable) Report that provides absolute and percentagewise changes for each SLAMM cover class through time for each scenario.
SLAMM-View 2.0 utilizes a combination of server and client software (Java and Java-script) based on Image Matters' userSmarts® technology. The ACSII formatted SLAMM output was converted to PNG (Portable Network Graphics), an extensible file format for the lossless, portable, well-compressed storage of raster images. This provides for fast rendering of the large gridded maps over the Internet without any reduction in the detail when viewed at local scales. The application accesses contextual layers such as state and county boundaries, roads, and NWI wetlands via web mapping services (OGC WMS), with adjustable layer transparency and a layer control view that allows users to order and turn these ancillary layers on and off. SLAMM-View was developed to support Firefox, as well as both Internet Explorer 6, 7, and 8 browsers.
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service is supporting SLAMM-View's current availability and its future enhancements.
SLAMM-View presently provides access to the digital geospatial data results from SLAMM simulations run for three regional Projects, and seven site-specific Projects (listed below) as well as 68 additional site-specific Projects from simulations run for National Wildlife Refuges (NWR).
- Georgia / South Carolina Region Project
- Chesapeake Region Project
- Puget Sound Region Project
- Chincoteague Site-specific Project
- Aransas / Whooping Crane Winter Habitat Site-specific Project
- Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Site-specific Project
- Jefferson County, TX Site-specific Project
- Saint Andrew Bay and Choctawhatchee Bay Site-specific Project
- Galveston Bay Site-specific Project
- Apalachicola Site-specific Project
Note that the "base year" or initial condition for the model runs is defined by the source image date of the US Fish and Wildlife Service's National Wetland Inventory maps (NWI), e.g., 1996 for the Chesapeake project, and 2004 for the Jefferson County, TX project. Project-level metadata such as this can be accessed by clicking on an individual Project in the list presented in step one of SLAMM-View's "Interactive Mode"
Simulation results from three sea level rise (SLR) scenarios are presented:
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Scenario A1B Mean; 39 cm of global average SLR (aka 0.4 m), adjusted for local conditions.
- IPCC Scenario A1B Maximum; 69 cm of global average SLR (aka 0.7 m), adjusted for local conditions.
- Global 1-meter eustatic SLR, adjusted for local conditions.
For many of the more recent Projects, two additional SLR scenarios were run as part of the simulations, and are made accessible via SLAMM-View:
- Global 1.5-meter eustatic SLR, adjusted for local conditions.
- Global 2-meter eustatic SLR, adjusted for local conditions.
SLAMM-View 2.0 presents two types of predictions from studies of sea-level rise on coastal wetlands: "regional" and "site-specific". Up to this point in time, only SLAMM output from regional simulations have been available: for the Chesapeake, Georgia / South Carolina, and Puget Sound / Northwest Coast study regions. Starting in 2009, site-specific results for the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge and surrounding area were made available through SLAMM-View. Note that although the entire Chincoteague study site lies within the Chesapeake study region, the results from the site-specific study originate from completely separate model runs. More recently, SLAMM results from the Aransas / Whooping Crane Winter Habitat, Jefferson County (TX), and Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve projects have been made accessible through SLAMM-View 2.0.
Most recently, the USFWS contracted with Image Matters to make accessible the SLAMM simulation results for 68 site-specific Projects, each centered on at least one coastal National Wildlife Refuge. This addition brings the total number of SLAMM Projects accessible in SLAMM-View to 78.
SLAMM-View 2.0 can be accessed at
There are six simple steps in the process of comparing and analyzing changes in SLAMM data:
Selecting a Project - A SLAMM-based research Project must be selected first to constrain the geographic region of comparison as well as to restrict the number of available scenarios and years that can be used in the comparison.
Selecting a Region - (Optional) A sub-region within the selected project may be used to further refine the geographic focus of the comparison. Regions are the rectangular footprints of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) or Coastal Barrier Resources System (CBRS) units.
Selecting Scenarios - One (1) or more, up to a maximum of five (5), scenarios must be selected for comparison.
Selecting Years - One (1) or more years must be selected. This defines the final component necessary to visually compare SLAMM model output changes. The choices of years are constrained by previously-selected projects and scenarios. If multiple scenarios have been selected for comparison, only those years shared among the scenarios are available for comparison.
Comparing SLAMM outputs - The selected year(s) of the selected scenario(s) may be compared against each other using rich-client mapping functionality. The number of maps used for comparison is limited to six (6, plus a locator map displaying National Wetland Inventory wetland polygon features), but the visible scenarios and years may be cycled through using controls.
Analyzing Changes - Changes in SLAMM model output may be analyzed for all scenarios and their years and presented in a summary report. Information about individual features found on the map within many of the contextual layers may also be displayed using Describe Feature functionality.
The Authors of the SLAMM studies and/or the SLAMM-View application are the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Warren Pinnacle Consulting Inc., Image Matters LLC, The Nature Conservancy, and the National Wildlife Federation. The Authors provide the information on this page, and/or the SLAMM model output data presented within the SLAMM-View application, for your personal use "as is." We gather information from different sources and agencies to give the users a wider selection of geographic themes as context for the SLAMM output. The areas depicted by these maps are approximate, and are not necessarily accurate to surveying or engineering standards. The maps shown here are for illustration purposes only and may not be suitable for highly localized site-specific decision making. We do not suggest that information found here be used for making financial or any other commitments. We provide this information with the understanding that it is not guaranteed to be accurate, correct or complete. Any conclusions drawn from such information are the responsibility of the user. While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy, correctness and timeliness of materials presented anywhere within these pages, The Authors assume no responsibility for errors or omissions, even if The Authors are advised of the possibility of such damage.
Availability of The Authors' Internet services is not guaranteed. Applications, servers, and network connections may be unavailable at any time for maintenance or unscheduled outages. Outages may be of long duration. Do not create dependencies on these services for critical needs.
THE FOREGOING WARRANTY IS EXCLUSIVE AND IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND/OR ANY OTHER TYPE WHETHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED. In no event shall The Authors become liable to users of these data, or any other party, for any loss or direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages, including but not limited to time, money or goodwill, arising from the use or modification of the data.
To assist The Authors in the maintenance of the data, users should provide The Authors information concerning errors or discrepancies found in using the data using the E-mail contact addresses listed below.
Please acknowledge the appropriate author as the source when SLAMM output data or the SLAMM-View application is used in the preparation of reports, papers, publications, maps, or other products.
We would appreciate your feedback about the SLAMM-View web mapping application:
The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
Product Manager, Image Matters
Model Developer, Warren Pinnacle Consulting